Timeline for 1960s to 1999 CE
Read about the timeline buttons!
1960 CE US scientists develop laser device (G)
Nobel Prize to W.F. Libby for work in archaeological dating techniques using radioactive carbon 14 (G)
1961 CE Yuri Gagarin (USSR) orbits the earth in six-ton satellite (G)
Nobel Prize to M. Calvin for determining the reactions in photosynthesis (G)
1962 CE US spacemen Glenn, Carpenter, and Schirra orbit earth in separate missions (G)
Telstar satellite launched; Mariner 2 launched as Venus probe (G)
Russian scientist Chudinov revives fossil algae, aged 250 million years (G)
US has 200 atomic reactors in operation; Britain, 39; USSR 39 (G)
Nobel Prize to Crick, Wilkins, and Watson for determining the molecular structure of DNA
1963 CE Matthews and Sandage discover quasars (G)
1964 CE Hoyle and Marlikar postulate a new theory of gravitation (G)
Ranger VII launched; returns close up photos of moon surface (G)
1960 CE Archbishop of Canterbury visits Jerusalem, Istanbul, and Rome (G)
Three women admitted to the ministry of the Swedish Lutheran Church (G)
1961 CE New English Bible appears on 350th anniversary of Authorized Version
Meeting of World Council of Churches in Delhi (G)
1964 CE Pope Paul VI makes pilgrimage to the Holy Land (G)
PLO (Palestine Liberation Army) formed with goal of destroying Israel.
1965 CE - Researcher detect microwave background radiation in outer reaches of the universe - a remnant of and evidence for the 'big bang' creation of the universe.
Scientists that previously did not recognize a beginning to the universe now have evidence to indicate the beginning.
Wilson and Penzias
Prior to a scientific discovery such as this, only the Bible clearly stated the universe had a beginning.
1965 CE Legislative momentum gains for anti-pollution laws on a national scale in US (G)
Use the entry above as an initial sign post for Global Change. Pollution considered here was more of the obvious type (like chemical wastes on land or put in water), only later would carbon dioxide pollution be recognized as a major driver for Global Change.
1966 CE Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 makes successful soft landing on moon (G)
US spacecraft Surveyor 1 makes soft landing on moon and transmits more than 11,000 TV images of lunar terrain (G)
1967 CE J.K. Galbraith: ''The New Industrial State'' (G)
Stanford University biochemists produce synthetic version of DNA (G)
People's Republic of China explodes its first hydrogen bomb (G)
1965 CE Britain celebrates Westminster Abbey's 900th anniversary (G)
1966 CE Billy Graham conducts his Greater London Crusade
World Jewish Congress in Brussels attempts to promote Jewish - Christian understanding (G)b
United Brethren and Methodist Churches vote to merge as United Methodist Church with combined membership of ca. 11 million (G)
Roman Catholic bishops rule that US Catholics need to no longer abstain from eating meat on Fridays except during lent (G)
1967 CEPalistinian guerrillas launch raids on Israel.
Jerusalem under Israeli control
1967 CE Six-Day War (June 1967) - Israel launches preemptive strikes on three Arab armies resulting in capture of Sinai, Golan Heights, and West Bank (including East Jerusalem).
bTemple Mount taken but only to be turned over to Arabs by Moshe Dyan b
Six-Day War As Viewed From the Newspaper accounts:
* On May 7, 1967, the New York Times reported Syria had shelled the Israeli village of Ein Gev on the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee.
* On May 17, 1967, the New York Times reported that the Palestine Liberation Organization, headed by Arafat, pledged to "keep sending commandos" into Israel.
* On May 19, 1967, the Los Angeles Times reported Egypt stood accused of using poison gas in Yemen.
* On May 19, 1967, the New York Times reported Egypt had deployed its forces along the Israeli border.
* On May 20, 1967, the New York Times reported Egypt forced UN peacekeeping troops to leave the Sinai Desert in anticipation of its attack on Israel.
* On May 21, 1967, the New York Times reported Egyptian soldiers were massing in the Sinai.
* On May 22, 1967, the New York Times reported that the PLO would be stepping up its attacks in Israel, that Cairo was calling up 10,000 reserves and that Iraq would be sending aid to battle Israel.
* On May 23, 1967, most major newspapers in the world reported that Egypt took the provocative action of closing the Gulf of Aqaba to Israel.
* On May 24, 1967, most major newspapers in the world reported that the U.S. declared Egypt's military blockade of the Gulf "illegal."
* On May 25, 1967, the New York Times reported that Jordan would admit Saudi and Iraqi forces into its country to do battle with Israel.
* On May 27, 1967, most major newspapers in the world reported Egypt's fiery threats to destroy Israel.
* On May 29, 1967, the New York Times reported the Egyptian buildup of military forces in the Sinai was continuing.
* On May 29, 1967, the Washington Post reported that, despite all of this provocation, Israel was still reluctant to have a showdown with its enemies.
* On May 29, 1967 the New York Times reported new Syrian attacks on Israel.
* On June 3, 1967, the New York Times reported that Britain declared the Egyptian blockade could lead to war. It also reported that four Syrian commandos were intercepted in Israel.
* On June 5, 1967, the Six-Day War began.
The result: Israel took control of East Jerusalem (which includes the Old City) from Jordan. It took control of Judea and Samaria on the west bank of the Jordan River from Jordan. It took control of the Golan Heights from Syria. And it took control of the Gaza Strip and Sinai Desert from Egypt.
1968 CE Worldwide confusion in university life created by student unrest (G)
Apollo 8 orbits moon and returns to earth (G)
1969 CE Apollo 11 lands lunar module on moon surface; Neil Armstrong steps out on moon surface (G)
Two Mariner space probes send back pictures of Mars (G)
Lease sale in Alaska brings single day sum of over 900 million dollars (G)
US takes steps to ban use of DDT (G)
1968 CE Yehuda Leib Levin, chief rabbi of Moscow, visits New York (G)
Pope Paul VI: encyclical ''Humanae Vitae,'' against all artificial means of contraception (G)
Benjamin Maser (Jerusalem University) discovers foundations of the Temple of Herod, destroyed 70 CE (G)
1969 CE Gallup Poll shows 70% of those questioned feel that the influence of religion is declining in the US (G)
E. Barghoorn discovers micro fossils of bacteria and algae dating to 3.5 BYA
Discovery of Micro Fossils
1970 CE 448 US universities and colleges are closed or on strike (G)
150-inch telescope at Kitt Peak (US)and 150-inch instrument at Inter-American Observatory (Chile) completed (G)
1971 CE US Apollo 14 and 15 crews become third and fourth groups to explore the moon's surface (G)
USSR soft-lands a space capsule on Mars (G)
1972 CE Apollo 16 and 17 astronauts set records for time on moon surface (G)
Richard Leakey and Glynn Isaac discover a 2.5-million-year old human skull in northern Kenya (G)
1973 CE American Skylab I, II, III, and IV space missions (G)
US Supreme Court rules that individual states may not prohibit abortions during the first six months of pregnancy (G)
1974 CE USSR space probe lands on Mars and detects more water vapor than scientists had previously supposed existed (G)
India becomes the sixth nation to explode a nuclear device; Great Britain, France, China conduct nuclear tests (G)
US scientists detect a new subatomic particle, the psi or J meson; interpreted as a state composed of a charmed quark and a charmed antiquark (G)
1975 CE US Viking unmanned spacecraft sets off on 50-million-mile journey to Mars to seek signs of life (G)
US Apollo and Soviet Soyuz 19 spacecraft link up 140 miles above earth (G)
Atlantic salmon, gone 100 years, return to spawn in Connecticut River; sturgeon coming back to Hudson River (G)
1970 CE Jordan expells PLO headquarters which then moves to Beirut.
1970 CE Pope Paul VI declares priestly celibacy to be fundamental principle of the Roman Catholic Church (G)
Roman Catholic and Jewish Leaders confer in Rome (G)
1971 CE ''The Jesus Movement'' becomes a much-publicized element of religion in America (G)
Federal and state aid to parochial schools is ruled unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court (G)
1972 CE Dimitrios I elected Patriarch of the Faith of the Eastern Orthodox Church (G)
1972 CE Munich Olympics - Palestinian attack on Israeli athletes
1973 CE Middle East war - Arabs mount attack to take back captured territory taken in 1967. Israel repulses attack.
Jewish settlements continue to be developed (1972: 1,500 Israeli citizens residing in settlements; in 1983: nearly 30,000 total)
1974 CE Four US Episcopal bishops defy church law and ordain 11 women as priests (G)
A Gallup Poll shows that 40 percent of US adults attend church services weekly. Roman Catholic attendance is down to 55 percent from 71 percent in 1963 (G)
1975 CE Anglican Church in Canada approves ordaining women to the priesthood (G)
Four women ordained to Episcopal priesthood in Washington; previous ordination of 11 women in Philadelphia invalidated by House of Bishops (G)
Fifth assembly of the World Council of Churches convenes in Nairobi, Kenya; call for a ''radical transformation of civilization'' (G)
New York City's Council of Churches rejects the membership application of the Unification Church of Rev. Sun Myung Moon (G)
1976 CE New atomic particle detected by US scientists, headed by L. Lederman, at Fermi Natl. Accelerator Laboratory; known as ''upsilon'' ... thought to belong to a new family of atomic fragments, named psions (G)
National Academy of Science reports that gases from spray cans can cause damage to the atmosphere's ozone layer (G)
Landing vehicles from US spacecraft Viking I and II set down on Mars and transmit to earth first close-up photos of the surface; scientific experiments remain inconclusive about the existence of life on Mars (G)
Discovery of viral cause of multiple sclerosis (G)
1977 CE US space shuttle ''Enterprise'' makes its first manned flight (G)
US confirms testing of neutron bomb which kills with massive radiation leaving most buildings intact (G)
US scientists announce discovery of primitive microorganisms called methanogens, a separate form of life distinct from bacteria, plants, and animals (G)
US scientists claim detection of a fundamental electric charge one-third that of the electron charge; possible detection of a quark (G)
US Natl. Institute of Health reports that for the first time a life-threatening viral infection — herpes encephalitis — has been successfully treated with a drug (G)
1978 CE ''Test tube baby'' born in England (G)
Nobel Price to Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson, and Pyotr Kapitsa (G)
1979 CE Nuclear disaster is narrowly averted in US at Three Mile Island (G)
Two Soviet cosmonauts in orbiting Salyut space station return to earth after record breaking 175 days in space (G)
1976 CE The Episcopal Church approves the ordination of women to be priests and bishops; the Anglican church of Canada ordains six women as priests (G)
Rev. Moon ends US ministry with rallies in New York and Washington, DC; parents protest the ''brainwashing'' tactics allegedly used by Moon's Unification Church to recruit and train its young members , known as ''Moonies'' (G)
US Lutherans split over interpretation of Bible and synod administration; new breakaway church founded (G)
1979 CE Pope John Paul II becomes first Pope to visit a communist country when he visits his native Poland; subsequently he tours the US and with US President Carter calls for universal peace (G)
Gunmen seize the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Saudi troops recapture it after bloody battle (G)
Camp David accords signed. Israel and Egypt make 'peace.'
Climate Change, Mounting Global Population, Depletion of nonrenewable resources, Economic Change, Global Market consolidation, Global Information via Internet... see Creator's Window Part I
Accelerating Global Change
1970s into 21st century; subject of increasing political and scientific discussion and negotiations.
Biblical ties to change topics are evident in Environmental types as described in Chapter 22 of the Creator's Window.
1980 CE The World Health Organization formally announces the worldwide eradication of smallpox (G)
The US Supreme Court rules that a microbe created by General Electric to eliminate oil waste can be patented (G)
Walter Alvarez (US) and colleagues discover a worldwide layer of iridium-enriched clay; this may be residue of a gigantic meteorite that struck the Earth and wiped out dinosaurs (G)
1981 CE Scientists identify Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (G)
NASA scientists announce that two unusual meteorites found in the Antarctic may have originated from Mars (G)
IBM launches its ''home'' or ''personal'' computer (the P.C.) (G)
David Pilbeam determines that ''Ramapithecus'' was probably an early ancestor of the orangutan rather than of humanity (G)
Chinese scientists are first to clone a fish successfully (a golden carp) (G)
Six U.S. embassy aides escape from Iran with Canadian help (Jan. 29). (Info)
F.B.I.'s undercover operation ≴Abscam” (for Arab scam) implicates public officials (Feb. 2). (Info)
U.S. breaks diplomatic ties with Iran (April 7). (Info)
Eight U.S. servicemen are killed and five are injured as helicopter and cargo plane collide in abortive desert raid to rescue American hostages in Teheran (April 25). (Info)
Supreme Court upholds limits on federal aid for abortions (June 30). (Info)
Shah of Iran dies at 60 (July 27). (Info)
troops hold 90 square miles
Pope John Paul II visits six African nations, followed later in the year by journeys to France, Brazil, and West Germany (G)
Polish radio broadcasts a Mass for the first time under Polish communist rule (G)
U.S.-Iran agreement frees 52 hostages held in Teheran since 1979 (Jan. 20); hostages welcomed back in U.S. (Jan. 25). (Info)
Pope John Paul II wounded by gunman (May 14). (Info)
A new translation of the Koran is printed in China (G)
Salvation Army withdraws from the World Council of Churches in protest for the WCC's ''political'' support for guerrilla movements (G)
Kelly Segraves (US), a leading Baptist ''creationist,'' argues in a Sacramento court against the teaching of evolution in state schools (G)
The South African Presbyterian Church instructs its clergy that they can marry people of different races in defiance of the apartheid laws (G)
Ethiopia's Marxist government closes Christian churches and Muslim mosques and especially persecutes Ethiopian Lutheran Church; 600 Christian and Muslim leaders executed (G)
Reform Jews of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations decide to end its 400-year old ban on proselytization (G)
Egypt's President Anwar Sadat assassinated.
1982 CE Nobel Prize to Aaron Klug for analysis of the structure of viruses and DNA (G)
The UN Law of the Sea Conference adopts an international convention to supervise the exploration of the world's sea beds as the ''common heritage of mankind,'' but the US and UK do not sign (G)
The centenary of Charles Darwin's death is marked by conferences throughout the world; ''punctuated evolution'' is a controversial new theory about the was life developed (G)
Karl Setter discovers a primitive bacterium that can live in boiling water around undersea volcanoes, geysers, etc. (G)
A Federal court in Little Rock, AK, declares it unconstitutional to teach ''creationism'' equally with the theory of evolution (G)
Evidence grows that children living near traffic routes are more affected by lead poisoning (G)
The first magnetized tissues to be discovered in mammals are found in dolphins; they may assist navigation (G)
Scientists at Groningen University, Netherlands, postulate the existence of a black hole at the center of our galaxy (G)
The first commercial product of genetic engineering appears when human insulin produced by bacteria is marketed (G)
Canada blames environmental damage to its forests on acid rain mainly from US industry and calls for extensive anti-pollution measures (G)
Items highlighted in red signify these as global change issues.
Combined heart-lung and kidney-pancreas transplants are carried out successfully (G)
Lebanon war results as Israel invades to stop PLO raids. PLO exiled to Tunisia as part of deal resulting in Israel's partial withdrawl from occupied territory.
Lebanese Christian Phalangists kill hundreds of people in two Palestinian refugee camps in West Beirut (Sept. 15). (Info)
John Paul II becomes first Pope to visit the UK; in 1982 also travels to Ireland, Argentina, West Africa, Spain, and Portugal (G)
The Vatican orders Czechoslovakian clergy to stop collaborating with the government (G)
An Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission recommends that the Pope should be recognized as ''universal Primate'' but this is fiercely opposed by many Anglicans (G)
The General Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church merges with the Presbyterian Church, US, having split from them in the Civil War (G)
A Covenant of Unity is agreed between the Methodist, United Reformed, and Mauritian churches (G)
The Pope meets Easier Abaft in the Vatican despite strong Israeli protests (G)
The World Alliance of Reformed Churches suspends South Africa's two Dutch Reformed Churches for the ''heresy'' of racial segregation (G)
1983 CE An ancient fossil skull discovered in Pakistan may be from missing link between whales and land animals; ''Pakicetus'' lived approximately 50 million years ago (G) [Director's note:Such ''links'' may also be objectively viewed as forms that appear in-between similarly designed other life forms; and remain so until clear evidence can establish the transitional ties between forms]
The world's first artificially made chromosome is created at Harvard University and grafted into yeast cells (G)
A gene markers that identify muscular dystrophy and Huntington's Disease are identified. (G)
A method of obsidian dating is developed similar to that of carbon dating (G)
After 11 years in flight, Pioneer 10 becomes the first spacecraft to leave the solar system (G)
The compact disc is launched (G)
Pope John Paul II signs new Roman Catholic code incorporating changes brought about by Second Vatican Council (Jan. 25). (Info)
U.S. Supreme Court declares many local abortion restrictions unconstitutional (June 15). (Info)
Terrorist explosion kills 237 U.S. Marines in Beirut (Oct. 23). (Info)
The Roman Catholic Church ends its automatic excommunication of Freemasons (G)
The Vatican and Sweden resume diplomatic relations after a break of 450 years (G)
The World Council of Churches reaches new levels of consensus on central aspects of Christian faith and worship (G)
1984 CE Nobel Prize for research on monoclonal antibodies and for studies on immune system (G)
Nobel Prize for discovery of W and Z particles (G)
The Apple Macintosh micro-computer with mouse is launched (G)
US and Trench teams independently discover the AIDS virus (G)
A silicon microchip that stores 4 times more data than previously possible is developed (G) ...and this trend continues well into the 21st Century!
Test-tube triplets and quadruplets are born in UK (G)
A 5-million-year old jawbone of ''Australopithecus afarensis'' is discovered in Kenya; this is the earliest known ancestor of ours that is not also an ancestor of the apes (G) [Director's note: as noted above, language by Grun implies evolution but objectively such assumptions often remain unfounded by lack of empirical data]
DNA analysis reveals that chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than to gorillas or other apes; the genetic difference is barely 1% (G) [Director's note: yet that 1% is a significant number of genetic base pairs and DNA information common to species may, objectively, also be elements of common design by information overlap]
There are currently 1,462 spacecraft and satellites in space ... according to NASA (G)
The world record total of 71,830 patents are filed in the US (G)
Reagan orders U.S. Marines withdrawn from Beirut international peacekeeping force (Feb. 7). (Info)
Italy and Vatican agree to end Roman Catholicism as state religion (Feb. 18). (Info)
Reagan ends U.S. role in Beirut by relieving Sixth Fleet from peacekeeping force (March 30). (Info)
Soviet Union withdraws from summer Olympic games in U.S., and other bloc nations follow (May 7). (Info)
The Vatican publishes a document on the ''Theology of Liberation'' warning against Marxism (G)
The largest demonstrations in French history, with nearly a million marchers, force the government to abandon its challenge to the independence of church schools (G)
Interest in rebuilding Temple
1982 - Union of Third Temple Groups
1987- Temple Mount Faithful enters court action in Israel in hopes of preventing Muslim destruction of Temple Mount remains for previous temple structures. (IP)
1985 CE Scientists at University of California, Berkeley, gain more evidence of a gigantic black hole in the middle of our galaxy (G)
Switzerland becomes the first European country to make catalytic converters, which need lead-free fuel, mandatory for private automobiles (G)
The earliest well-preserved amphibian skeleton is found in Scottish oil shale and is 340 million years old (G)
Deep oceanic vents are found in Mid-Atlantic Ridge (G)
The British Antarctic Survey discovers a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica (G)
Two Shi'ite Muslim gunmen capture TWA airliner with 133 aboard, 104 of them Americans (June 14); 39 remaining hostages freed in Beirut (June 30). (Info)
P.L.O. terrorists hijack Achille Lauro, Italian cruise ship, with 80 passengers, plus crew (Oct. 7). (Info)
Reagan and Gorbachev meet at summit (Nov. 19); agree to step up arms control talks and renew cultural contacts (Nov. 21). (Info)
Terrorists seize Egyptian Boeing 737 airliner after takeoff from Athens (Nov. 23); 59 dead as Egyptian forces storm plane on Malta (Nov. 24). (Info)
Large crowds visit a statue of the Virgin Mary in Ballinspittle, County Cork, Ireland, which is said to move back and forth (G)
China releases the former Roman Catholic Bishop of Shanghai... after 30 years' imprisonment for his religious beliefs; Beijing's Roman Catholic cathedral is reopened (G)
1986 CE Voyager 2 flies by Uranus and discovers 10 more moons (G)
The space shuttle ''Challenger'' explodes on take-off, killing all seven crew members (G)
In Egypt, archeologists uncover the 3,000-year-old tomb of Maya, Tutankhamen's treasure (G)
Using a submarine, a West German scientists films living coelacanths in their natural habitat 600 feet below the sea's surface (G)
A Dominican miner finds a 35-million-year old frog encased in amber (G)
25,000 AIDS cases are diagnosed in the US (G)
Major nuclear accident at Soviet Union's Chernobyl power station alarms world (April 26). (Info)
Spain and Portugal join European Economic Community (Jan. 1). (Info)
President freezes Libyan assets in U.S. (Jan. 8). (Info)
Austrian president Kurt Waldheim's service as Nazi army officer revealed (March 3). (Info)
U.S. planes attack Libyan "terrorist centers” (April 14). (Info)
Three Lutheran church groups in U.S. set to merge (Aug. 29). (Info)
Secret initiative to send arms to Iran revealed (Nov. 6.). (Info)
Reagan denies exchanging arms for hostages and halts arms sales (Nov. 19); diversion of funds from arms sales to Nicaraguan Contras revealed (Nov. 25). (Info)
John Paul II becomes the first Pope in recorded history to visit a synagogue and also leads a hundred world religious leaders (Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Shinto, Sikh) in prayers for peace at St. Francis' Basilica, Assisi (G)
Desmond Tutu becomes the first black Archbishop of Cape Town (G)
Israeli archeologists discover a 2,600-year-old biblical text (G)
South Africa's Dutch Reformed Church votes to open its membership to all races (G)
Church of England bishops publish ''The Nature of Christian Belief,'' which reaffirms their belief in the Virgin Birth and the Resurrection (G)
Martin Gilbert: ''The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy'' (G)
1987 CE The 25th anniversary of the launch of the Telstar communications satellite; 3.6 billion telephone calls have been relayed by communications satellites since then (G)
The nearest supernova detected since 1604 is observed in the Large Magellanic galaxy (G)
Sir Clive Sinclair launches the Z88 portable computer weighing under 2 pounds (G)
Spearpoints made by the first Americans (the Clovis) are found, dating from 11,500 years ago (G)
The second nest of fossilized dinosaur eggs to be found is identified in Albert, Canada (G)
A Arkhipov of Moscow's Radio Astronomy Institute identifies 9 out of 4,500 ''sun-like'' stars that may be the focus of intelligent life (G)
The 2,000th satellite to be launched is the Soviet ''Cosmos'' (G)
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko returns to Earth from the Mir space station after a record 326 days in space (G)
William Buckley, U.S. hostage in Lebanon, reported slain (Jan. 20). (Info)
Iraqi missiles kill 37 in attack on U.S. frigate Stark in Persian Gulf (May 17). (Info)
Klaus Barbie, 73,
Oliver North, Jr.,
Admiral John M. Poindexter, former National Security Adviser, testifies he authorized use of Iran arms sale profits to aid Contras (July 15—22). (Info)
Secretary of State George P. Shultz testifies he was deceived repeatedly on Iran-Contra affair (July 23—24). (Info)
Caspar W. Weinberger tells inquiry
Reagan says Iran arms-Contra policy went astray and accepts responsibility (Aug. 12). (Info)
The Church of England ordains the first female Anglican deacons (G)
The Pope visits the US and Canada (G)
The Rev. Pat Robertson announces his Republican candidacy for the Presidency (G)
Oral Roberts raises $4.5 million after declaring that God would ''call him home'' if he failed to do so (G)Jim Baker, television minister, resigns after accusations of adultery (G)
1988 CE Nobel Prize for discovering structure of proteins involved in photosynthesis (G)
Stephen Hawking: ''A Brief History of Time'' (G)
The world population is growing by 220,000 a day, according to the UN (G)
Australia unveils the most powerful radio telescope in the southern hemisphere (G)
The first transatlantic optical fiber telephone cable to enter service links France, the UK, and US; it can process 40,000 simultaneous conversations (G)
''Discovery'' launch is first shuttle since loss of Challenger - 20 months previously (G)
Carbon dating establishes that Turin Shroud dates to about 1330 CE and so is not burial cloth of Jesus (G) [Director's note: research on shroud continues well into the 90s]
''Internet'' computer virus designed by a US student jams over 6,000 military computers across the US (G)
Eight major toiletry companies decide to phase out ozone hostile aerosols by late 1989 (G)
Surgeons perform the first UK brain cell transplants
The US B-2 ''Stealth'' bomber is unveiled (G)
Robert C. McFarlane, former National Security Adviser, pleads guilty in Iran-Contra case (March 11). (Info)
U.S. Navy ship shoots down Iranian airliner in Persian Gulf, mistaking it for jet fighter; 290 killed (July 3). (Info)
Terrorists kill nine tourists on Aegean cruise (July 11). (Info)
Pan-Am 747 explodes from terrorist bomb and crashes in Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 aboard and 11 on ground (Dec. 21). (Info)
Salman Rushdie's latest novel, ''The Satanic Verses'' is attacked by Muslims for sacrilege and blasphemy (G)
The film ''The Last Temptation of Christ,'' directed by Martin Scorsese, is condemned by many Christian religious leaders as blasphemous (G)
Eugene Antonio Marino becomes the US's first black Roman Catholic Archbishop (of Atlanta) (G)
The North Korean government allows a Roman Catholic mass to be celebrated in Pyongyang by two South Korean priests (G)
1989 CE Florida and Virginia allow DNA genetic ''fingerprinting'' as admissible evidence in some rape cases (G)
Israeli archeologists discover a Neanderthal skeleton (G)
US archeologists discover an ancient Assyrian city, Mashkanshapir, in Iraq (G)
The Large Electron-Positron Collider begins operation in Switzerland; the world's largest scientific apparatus - 16.5 miles in circumference (G)
Toshiba produces the first commercial samples of 4-megabit DRAM computer chips (G)
Computer viruses infect computer networks worldwide (G)
Meteorologists pronounce 1989 the warmest on record; this may be a sign of the greenhouse effect (G)
80 nations adopt a declaration agreeing to stop producing, by 2000, CFCs which damage the world's ozone layer (G)
Astronomers discover a large, thin ''sheet'' of galaxies with vast emptiness on either side; it is dubbed the ''Great Wall'' and is unexplained by current theories of gravitational attraction (G)
Mysterious ''crop circles'' appear in UK cornfields (G)
The UN Population Fund predicts that world population will rise to 14.2 billion by 2100 CE (current population is under 5 billion) (G)
U.S. planes shoot down two Libyan fighters over international waters in Mediterranean (Jan. 4). (Info)
Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini declares author Salman Rushdie's book The Satanic Verses offensive and sentences him to death (Feb. 14). (Info)
Tens of thousands of Chinese students take over Beijing's Tiananmen Square in rally for democracy (April 19). (Info)
U.S. jury convicts Oliver North in Iran-Contra affair (May 4). (Info)
More than one million in Beijing demonstrate for democracy; chaos spreads across nation (mid-May). (Info)
Mikhail S. Gorbachev named Soviet president (May 25). (Info)
Thousands killed in Tiananmen Square as Chinese leaders take hard line toward demonstrators (June 4 et seq.). (Info)
After 28 years, Berlin Wall is open to West (Nov. 11). (Info)
Czech Parliament ends Communists' dominant role (Nov. 30). (Info)
Romanian uprising overthrows communist government (Dec. 15 ). (Info)
The Polish Parliament grants the Roman Catholic Church legal stature and renews diplomatic relations with the Vatican (G)
Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the first Soviet leader to meet a Pope (G)
Rev. Jerry Falwell announces that Moral Majority Inc. will be dissolved and states that it has achieved its aim of reactivating the religious Right (G)
Indian Hindu fundamentalists attempt to demolish an important Islamic mosque sited on the alleged birthplace of the Hindu god Rama; this becomes an important controversy in the Indian national elections
Temple Mount Faithful (TMF) make first attempt to put a cornerstone for future Temple on the Temple Mount. (IP)
Throughout 1990s various authors contribute to the published literature articles and books that support a growing array of support for intelligent design. See the Second Feature Area of WindowView for related topics and feature articles that are relevant to this topic.
ORIGINS and Where Evolution Theory fails in light of evidence for Intelligent Design
1990 CE - Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite makes accurate measurement of microwave radiation first detected by Wilson and Penzias (1965).
Corroborating evidence locks in a strong case for physical evidence of the beginning of the universe.
Suggestion: see Fred Heeren's book, Show Me God, for an exceptionally easy to read discussion on astronomy, physics, and other science topics that support the biblical perspective on the creation we read about in science news.
1990 CE Nobel Prize for Physics: R.E. Taylor, J.I. Friedman, and H.W. Kendall for their work on quarks
English and French engineers meet under the sea as the Channel tunnel is linked together (G)
The US Food and Drug Administration approves the first low-calorie fat substitute (G)
1990 CE - Temple Mount Faithful (TMF) second attempt to put cornerstone on mount. (IP)
U.S.-Soviet summit reaches accord on armaments (June 1). (Info)
Western Alliance ends cold war and proposes joint action with Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (July 6). (Info)
U.S. Appeals Court overturns Oliver North's Iran-Contra conviction (July 20). (Info)
Iraqi troops invade Kuwait and seize petroleum reserves, setting off Persian Gulf War (Aug. 2). (Info)
East and West Germany reunited (Oct. 3). (Info)
Leaders of 34 nations in Europe and North America proclaim a united Europe (Nov. 21). (Info)
The ''New Revised Standard Version'' of the Bible is published in the US (G)
Metropolitan Aleksy of Leningrad is elected the Russian Orthodox Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (G)
Global Change trends recognized more in this decade than in all previous time ...
Feature Area provides examples of driving forces.
U.S. and Allies at war with Iraq (Jan. 15). (Info)
Warsaw Pact dissolves
Cease-fire ends Persian Gulf War; UN forces are victorious (April 3). (Info)
South African Parliament repeals apartheid laws (June 5). (Info)
Warsaw Pact dissolved (July 1). (Info)
Boris N. Yeltsin inaugurated as first freely elected president of Russian Republic (July 10). (Info)
Bush-Gorbachev summit negotiates strategic arms reduction treaty (July 31). (Info)
1991- TMF makes third attempt with cornerstone (July). Another attempt also made in September. (IP)
China accepts nuclear nonproliferation treaty (Aug. 10). (Info)
Israel and Soviet Union resume relations after 24 years (Oct. 18). (Info)
U.S. indicts two Libyans in 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland (Nov. 15). (Info)
Anglican envoy Terry Waite and U.S. Prof. Thomas M. Sutherland freed by Lebanese (Nov. 18). (Info)
Last three U.S. hostages freed in Lebanon (Dec. 2—4). (Info)
Soviet Union breaks up after resident Gorbachev's resignation; constituent republics form Commonwealth of Independent States (Dec. 25). (Info)
U.S. and Soviet Union sponsor Madrid peace conference to help ease tensions following Palestinian rebellion stemming from late 1980s.
1992 CE Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) releases first report warning gloal warming is problem of enormous consequence. (A)
Mid-90s Response to IPCC report includes industry groups forming the Global Climate Coalition (GCC) which later proved effective in countering progress on climate treaties.(A)
1996 CE A study dated the Chinese Homo erectus fossils collectively known as Peking Man to at least 400,000 years ago (SciNews: May 11: 292).
1996 CE Finds at a 600,000-year-old Israeli site suggested that human ancestors carried African cultural traditions to the Middle East in a series of population movements (SciNews: March 23: 183).
CE Researchers unveiled the Hubble Deep Field, the most detailed
view of a patch of sky ever taken (SciNews: Jan. 20: 36, Feb. 3: 77).
1996 CE Researchers reported firm evidence that a black hole lies at the heart of our galaxy (SciNews Oct. 5: 212).
1996 CE World War II Holocaust survivors often pass on to their children a vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder (SciNews May 18: 310).
1996 CE A controversial theory proposed that sexual orientation springs from personality traits that gear children toward sex-typical or sex-atypical activities (SciNews Aug. 10: 88).
1996 CE Memory-related brain cells do not appear to die as people age (SciNews Sept. 7: 150).
1996 CE New technique may make possible the cloning of large numbers of genetically altered livestock (SciNews March 9: 148).
1996 CE Butterflies can alter their wing patterns in just a few generations, using only a few genes (SciNews Nov. 23: 324).
1996 CE Ecologists mapped out endangered species' hot spots (SciNews Aug. 17: 101).
1996 CE Exotic strains of HIV were found in the United States (SciNews July 20: 40).
Upward trend in spread of diseases globally
1996 CE A human version of mad cow disease was reported in the United Kingdom (SciNews April 13: 228, Nov. 2: 282).
CE The United States was identified as having the largest epidemic
of sexually transmitted diseases of any developed country
1996 CE Diet pills were linked to deadly pulmonary hypertension (SciNews Aug. 31: 134).
1996 CE Myrrh, an ancient balm, was shown to have pain-killing properties (SciNews Jan. 13: 20).
1996 CE Congestion on the Internet prompted new efforts to circumvent information traffic jams (SciNews March 23: 181).
1996 CE Oceanographers drilled into the seafloor to study frozen deposits of methane gas, a potential fuel of the future (SciNews Nov. 9: 298).
1996 CE Climate scientists and public health researchers predicted that global warming will cause adverse effects on human health (SciNews April 6: 218).
1996 CE The 1996 ozone hole over Antarctica failed to reach record depths, confounding expectations of some scientists (SciNews Oct. 19: 246).
1996 CE Trawling causes significant, long-term damage to seafloor communities (SciNews Oct. 26: 268).
CE Environmental laws revised limitations
on pesticide residues in foods and set new controls on drinking water
1996 CE Analysis of carbon isotopes in ancient Greenland rocks pushed back the history of life on Earth to 3.85 billion years ago (SciNews Nov. 9: 292).
1996 CE Continental plants suffered a massive die-off 250 million years ago, coincident with a great animal extinction (SciNews March 16: 164).
CE Several studies focusing on projected
population growth identified social issues that complicate analyses of
1996 CE In a controversial report, scientists announced that a meteorite from Mars may contain fossils of primitive Martian bacteria (SciNews Aug. 10: 84, Dec. 14: 380).
Bush and Yeltsin proclaim formal end to cold war (Feb. 1). (Info)
Caspar W. Weinberger indicted in Iran-Contra affair (June 16). (Info)
Supreme Court reaffirms right to abortion (June 29). (Info)
Parliament approves Yitzhak Rabin's coalition
UN approves U.S.-led force to guard food for Somalia (Dec. 3). (Info)
Prince and Princess of Wales agree to separate (Dec. 9). (Info)
Bush pardons former Reagan administration officials involved in Iran-Contra affair (Dec. 24). (Info)
Clinton agrees to compromise on military's ban on homosexuals (Jan. 29). (Info)
World Trade Center bombing by terrorists in New York City. Damage to parking garage; six killed, others injured.
Federal agents besiege Texas Branch Davidian religious cult after six are killed in raid (March 1). (Info)
Five arrested, sixth sought in bombing of World Trade Center in New York (March 29). (Info)
Fire kills 72 as cult standoff in Texas ends with federal assault (April 19). (Info)
Twenty-two UN troops killed in Somalia (June 5). (Info)
Iraq accepts UN weapons monitoring (July 19). (Info)
U.S.-Midwest flood damage expected to exceed $10 billion (July 24). (Info)
Israeli-Palestinian accord reached (Aug. 28). (Info)
U.S. agents blamed in Waco, Tex., siege (Oct. 1). (Info)
Yeltsin's forces crush revolt in Russian Parliament (Oct. 4). (Info)
China breaks nuclear test moratorium (Oct. 5). (Info)
Europe's Maastricht Treaty takes effect, creating European Union (Nov. 1). (Info)
House of Representatives approves North American Free Trade Agreement (Nov. 17); Senate follows (Nov. 21). (Info)
Terrorist shootings outside of CIA HQ in McLean, VA.
Oslo accords lay groundwork for Palestinian self rule... including mutual recognition between Palestine and Israel.
Major earthquake jolts Los Angeles; 51 dead (Jan. 17). (Info)
Four convicted in World Trade Center bombing (March 4). (Info)
Rwandan genocide of Tutsis by Hutus begins; estimated 800,000 slaughtered in c. 100 days (April 6). (Info)
Israel and Palestinians sign accord (May 4). (Info)
Powerful earthquake strikes Japan (Oct. 4). (Info)
U.S. sends forces to Persian Gulf (Oct. 7). (Info)
Israel and Jordan sign peace treaty (Oct. 17). (Info)
Russians attack secessionist Republic of Chechnya (Dec. 11). (Info)
Palestinian Authority formed to administer West Bank and Gaza. Full control of West Bank and Gaza not implemented.
5,000 dead in
U.S. rescues Mexico's economy with $20-billion aid program (Feb. 21). (Info)
Nerve gas attack in Tokyo subway kills eight and injures thousands. The Aum Shinrikyo (“Supreme Truth”) cult is to blame (March 20). (Info)
UN Council votes easier sanctions for Iraq (April 14). (Info)
Scores killed as terrorist's truck bomb blows up block-long Oklahoma City federal building (April 19); Timothy McVeigh arrested as suspect (April 21); link right-wing paramilitary groups to bombing (April 22). (Info)
France explodes nuclear device in Pacific; wide protests ensue (Sept. 5). (Info)
Israelis and Palestinians agree on transferring West Bank to Arabs (Sept. 24). (Info)
Paul II visits
March draws hundreds of thousands of
Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin slain by Jewish extremist at peace rally (Nov. 4). (Info)
Twarted plot — terrorists intended to bomb New York landmarks
1997 CE December, Kyoto, Japan, national delegates from all over the world convene to draft a global climate treaty with regard to CO2 emissions. (A)
1997 CE The first successful isolation of mitochondrial DNA from a Neanderthal fossil fueled the long-running debate over modern human origins (SciNews: July 19: 37).
CE A new fossil analysis indicated that a largely upright stance
evolved in a 9-million- to 7-
1997 CE New fossils of a 1.4-million-year-old human ancestor suggested that it possessed more biological variation than has often been assumed (SciNews: Oct. 4: 215).
CE Astronomers obtained evidence of a black hole's event horizon
and suggested that such
1997 CE Researchers are measuring the speed at which black holes at the centers of galaxies devour their surroundings (SciNews: Nov. 1: 278).
1997 CE Researchers deduced the presence of planets orbiting other sunlike stars (SciNews: May 17: 305).
1997 CE Even in the poorest neighborhoods, crime rates fall if residents share a sense of mutual trust, unity, and public duty, researchers reported (SciNews: Aug. 16: 101).
1997 CE General reasoning skills inculcated by ultraorthodox Jewish schools in Israel prepare students to solve tricky geometry problems better than do mathematics and science classes in Israel's mainstream schools, a study found (SciNews: Jan. 25: p. 53).
1997 CE The birth of Dolly, a lamb cloned from the cells of an adult ewe, surprised the world (SciNews: March 1: 132; April 5: 214).
1997 CE Researchers deciphered the DNA sequence of every gene used by the bacterium E. coli (SciNews: Feb. 8: 84).
1997 CE Geneticists assembled the first human artificial chromosomes (SciNews: April 5: 204).
1997 CE A gene shared by many animal species creates doubt that eyes evolved independently many times (SciNews: May 10: 288).
1997 CE Specialized proteins escort RNA and other molecules from the cell nucleus (SciNews: Nov. 15: 316).
1997 CE Scientists isolated human embryonic stem cells (SciNews: July 19: 36).
1997 CE Scientists took movies of the world's smallest rotary motor, an enzyme that makes fuel for biochemical processes (SciNews: March 22: 173; Oct. 25: 262).
1997 CE A multiprocessor computer became the first machine to surpass a calculation rate of 1 trillion operations per second (SciNews: Jan. 4: 7; July 5: 5).
1997 CE A record El Nino developed in the Pacific Ocean (SciNews: May 24: 316; Aug. 2: 75), altering the typical hurricane pattern (Oct. 18: 245).
1997 CE Debate over the rate of global warming intensified with the detection of errors in satellite temperature data (SciNews: March 15: 156).
1997 CE The Antarctic ozone hole reached new heights (SciNews: Oct. 25: 262).
1997 CE The global average temperature in 1996 rose to a near-record value (Jan. 18: 38).
1997 CE Satellite data hint that the sun's radiation is growing stronger (SciNews: Sept. 27: 197).
1997 CE Continents grew surprisingly early in Earth's history (SciNews: Feb. 1: 70).
in Kyoto, Japan, drafted a treaty that would set binding limits on greenhouse
1997 CE Human activities now contribute more nitrogen to biological communities than natural sources do, a trend that may explain some loss of biodiversity (SciNews: Feb. 15: 100).
1997 CE Outbreaks of fish-killing Pfiesteria and other toxin-producing microorganisms plagued coastal areas, prompting congressional hearings (SciNews: Sept. 6: 149; Sept. 27: 202; Oct. 4: 213).
1997 CE IBM started to manufacture computer chips that use copper instead of aluminum circuitry, making them faster, smaller, and cheaper (SciNews: Sept. 27: 196).
1997 CE Dinosaur discoveries in Patagonia, Madagascar, and China rekindled debate about the hypothesis that birds evolved from dinosaurs (SciNews: Aug. 23:120; Nov. 15: 310).
1997 CE A Namibian fossil defies categorization as an animal or plant, raising questions about a bizarre group of creatures from 550 million years ago (Nov. 22: 326).
1997 CE Russian science appears to be poised on the brink of collapse (SciNews: May 10: 294).
1997 CE Chemical weapons treaty went into effect, stipulating that signatory nations must destroy their stockpiles by 2007 (SciNews: May 3: 270).
CE Researchers began grappling with the ethical and legal rights
of people who donate
1997 CE After landing on the Red Planet on July 4, Mars Pathfinder and its rover proceeded to explore their surroundings (July 12: 20).
1997 CE Researchers continued to debate whether a Martian meteorite holds signs of ancient, primitive life (SciNews: Feb. 8: 87; March 29: 190).
1998 CE Global conference on climate in Buenos Aires, Brazil, where climate concerns were politically compromised by industrial interests (e.g., primarily oil, coal, electric, auto, and chemical industries). (A)
1998 CE Disputed DNA data indicated that modern humans migrated out of Africa around 100,000 years ago and founded modern East Asian populations (SciNews Oct. 3: 212).
1998 CE By about 8,000 years ago, prehistoric North Americans had fashioned sophisticated sandals and slip-on shoes (SciNews July 4: 7).
CE Rather than slowing down, the universe
appears to be expanding at an ever-increasing
1998 CE Staring down a corridor 12 billion light-years long, the Hubble Space Telescope dramatically increased the number of galaxies that scientists can study (SciNews Nov. 28: 343).
1998 CE Simulations indicated that half the ordinary matter in the cosmos remains hidden because it radiates at hard-to-detect wavelengths (SciNews June: 390).
1998 CE Immigrants and their children tend to become more susceptible to mental and physical ailments with greater exposure to U.S. culture (SciNews Sept. 19:180).
1998 CE Religious faith attracted attention as an aid in treating mild to moderate depression (SciNews April1: 247).
CE Sparking a debate on medical ethics, researchers finally isolated
embryonic human cells
CE Engineering cells to keep producing an enzyme called telomerase,
1998 CE DNA analyses supported the oral tradition of how the Jewish priesthood originated (SciNews Oct. 3: 218)
CE Two coelacanths caught in Indonesia represent only the second
known population of
1998 CE In a rare demonstration of links between major ecosystems, dwindling of prey in deep water seems to have driven killer whales to kelp forests, where they devastate sea otters (SciNews Oct. 17: 245).
1998 CE Computer simulations indicated that greenhouse warming will exacerbate ozone destruction in the Arctic (SciNews April 11: 228).
CE The mass extinction at the end of the Permian
period happened much faster than
1998 CE Global temperatures continued their push upward into record range (SciNews Jan. 17: 38; July 25: 52).
1998 CE The Antarctic ozone hole reached record dimensions (SciNews Oct. 17: 246).
CE After 34 industrial nations pledged to
control many of the most toxic long-lived industrial
1998 CE European chemists found detectable drug residues — excreted by people taking a wide variety of drugs — in samples ranging from treated sewage to open water to drinking water (SciNews March 21:187).
1998 CE Fishing fleets, a new study showed, are maintaining their yields only by harvesting stocks that are lower and lower in the food chain—an ecologically unsustainable practice (SciNews Feb. 7: 86).
1998 CE The World Conservation Union reported in its first IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants that one out of every eight known plant species is in peril (SciNews April 25: 264).
1998 CE Invasive algae, apparently escapees from aquariums, have been spreading throughout the northern Mediterranean Sea, wiping out native seafloor life and prompting calls for a US ban on trade in this species (SciNews July 4: 8).
CE The explosive growth of the World Wide Web focused attention
on improving search
1998 CE The discovery of feathered dinosaur fossils in China boosted the theory that birds arose from dinosaurs (SciNews: June 27: 404).
1998 CE Fossilized soil deposits indicate that life may have colonized the continents as much as 2 billion years ago (SciNews: March 7: 151).
1998 CE Eye scans and other identification techniques that measure anatomical traits began to be used in security screening (SciNews: April 4: 216).
France announces end to nuclear tests (Jan. 29). (Info)
Britain alarmed by deadly cow disease (March 20). (Info)
UN tribunal charges war crimes by Bosnian Muslims and Croats (March 22). (Info)
Chechnya peace treaty signed (May 27). (Info)
Israel elects Benjamin Netanyahu as prime minister (May 31). (Info)
China agrees to world ban on atomic testing (June 6). (Info)
Truck bomb kills 19 at U.S. base in Saudi Arabia (June 25). (Info)
Iraqis strike at Kurdish enclave (Aug. 31); after warning, U.S. attacks Iraq's southern air defenses (Sept. 2–3); Iraq halts attacks on U.S. planes enforcing flight exclusion zones in north and south (Sept. 13). (Info)
Violence flares in Jerusalem over Israel opening tourist tunnel (Sept. 24). (Info)
Taliban Muslim fundamentalists capture Afghan capital (Sept. 27). (Info)
Kofi Annan named UN secretary-general (Dec. 13). (Info)
Two Hutu sentenced to death in Rwandan genocide (Jan. 3). (Info)
Floods cause wide damage in U.S. West (Jan. 5). (Info)
Hebron agreement signed; Israel gives up large part of West Bank city of Hebron (Jan. 16). (Info)
U.S., U.K., and France agree to freeze Nazis' gold loot (Feb. 3). (Info)
government approves establishment of Jewish
Senate, 74–26, approves chemical-weapons treaty (April 24). (Info)
Russian president Yeltsin signs Chechnya peace treaty (May 12). (Info)
European Union bolsters currency merger (June 16). (Info)
Three Islamic suicide bombers kill four persons in Jerusalem (Sept. 4). (Info)
Mother Teresa dead at 87 (Sept. 5).
Swiss plan first payment to Holocaust victims (Sept. 17). (Info)
Militant Taliban leaders seize Kabul (Sept. 27). (Info)
Iraq expels all U.S. members of UN arms-inspection team (Oct. 29). (Info)
Pakistani convicted in 1993 CIA killings (Nov. 10). (Info)
Two convicted in New York World Trade Center bombing (Nov. 12). (Info)
Egyptian Islamic militants kill 62 at Luxor tourist site (Nov. 17). (Info)
Ramzi Ahmed Yousef sentenced to life for 1993 World Trade Center bombing (Jan. 9). (Info)
Pope John Paul II visits Cuba (Jan. 21–25). (Info)
Thousands dead in Afghanistan quake (Feb. 4). (Info)
agree on single
India conducts three atomic tests despite worldwide disapproval (May 11, 13). (Info)
Pakistan stages five nuclear tests in response to India's (May 29, 30). (Info)
Iraq ends cooperation with UN arms inspectors (Aug. 5). (Info)
U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania bombed (Aug. 7). (Info)
U.S. cruise missiles hit suspected terrorist bases in Sudan and Afghanistan (Aug. 20). (Info)
North Korea fires missile across Japan (Aug. 31). (Info)
Senate sustains veto of bill to outlaw late-term abortions (Sept. 18). (Info)
Iran lifts death threat against Salman Rushdie (Sept. 24). (Info)
Wye Mills Agreement between Netanyahu and Arafat moves Middle East peace talks forward (Oct. 23). (Info)
Clinton orders air strikes on Iraq (Dec. 16–19). (Info)
1999 CE Finds at a 600,000-year-old Israeli site suggested that human ancestors carried African cultural traditions to the Middle Eastin a series of population movements (SciNews: March 23: 183).
1999 CE Researchers reached a stalemate in discerning what mitochondrial DNA studies reveal about human evolution (SciNews: Feb. 6: 88).
1999 CE Bone flutes uncovered at a 9,000-year-old Chinese village included the earliest known complete, playable musical instrument (SciNews: Sept. 25: 197).
1999 CE Astronomers found new evidence that the universe is flat (Jan. 9: 30) and identified novel tests for the startling notion that the universe's expansion is accelerating (July 12: 379; Nov. 27: 341).
1999 CE The team that 3 years ago reported controversial evidence of tiny fossils in an ancient meteorite from Mars described possible fossils in two considerably younger Martian rocks (SciNews: May 1: 286).
1999 CE Biologists sequenced human chromosome 22, a milestone in the human genome project (Dec. 4: 356), and a biotech firm claimed that people have more than 140,000 genes, doubling earlier estimates (SciNews: Oct. 9: 239).
1999 CE Genetic studies confirmed that the AIDS virus originated in chimpanzees living in central Africa (SciNews: Feb. 6: 84).
1999 CE Mice lacking the enzyme telomerase aged prematurely in some ways and were more cancer prone than normal mice (SciNews: March 13: 166).
1999 CE As temperatures rose in recent decades, British birds nested earlier and some 40 species' nesting ranges shifted north, while Mexican jays in Arizona started families earlier in the spring (SciNews: June 12: 383).
1999 CE New evidence explained how DNA strands conduct electrons, a process that might contribute to repair of genetic mutations (SciNews: Aug. 14: 104).
1999 CE Meteorologists discovered a cousin of El Niño in the Indian Ocean (SciNews: Sept. 25: 196).
1999 CE Studies of Amazon deforestation proved to be underestimates (SciNews: April 10: 228).
1999 CE The carbon dioxide buildup in the air has stunted coral reef growth (April 3: 214).
1999 CE Global temperatures in 1998 proved the highest in 140 years (SciNews: Jan. 2: 6).
1999 CE Signs of climatic warming appeared in the Arctic Ocean (SciNews: Feb. 13: 104).
1999 CE Meteorologists predicted that La Niña will skew U.S. winter weather (Oct. 30: 278) and started factoring global warming into extended forecasts (SciNews: March 20: 188).
1999 CE Research aircraft found unexpected smog over the Indian Ocean (SciNews: June 19: 389).
1999 CE Geologists linked a massive eruption in Pangea to extinctions 200 million years ago (SciNews: April 24: 260).
1999 CE Cutting down on haze-causing pollution could increase crop productivity—perhaps eliminating China's demand for grain exports—a study calculated (SciNews: Dec. 4: 356).
1999 CE A large share of the diseases in ocean wildlife traces to a complex interplay of human activities and climate, marine epidemiologists concluded (SciNews: Jan. 30: 72).
1999 CE U.S. rivers have become a major reservoir of antibiotic - resistant bacteria that can spread to wildlife and people, new studies showed (SciNews: June 5: 356).
1999 CE Efforts to avert year - 2000 computer-chip and software problems held the attention of computer experts, engineers, and public officials throughout 1999 (SciNews: Jan. 2: 4; Nov. 6: 294; Nov. 27: 351).
1999 CE The Melissa computer virus exposed new software vulnerabilities, while researchers looked for ways to render computers immune to such digital pests (SciNews: May 8: 303; July 31: 76).
1999 CE The discovery of the earliest fossil vertebrates—two Chinese fish—pushed back the origin of such animals to the Cambrian explosion (SciNews: Nov. 6: 292).
1999 CE China yielded two new dinosaur species bearing evidence of downy coats (Sept. 18: 183). A third Chinese dinosaur had feathers and might have flown (SciNews: Nov. 20: 328).
1999 CE The earliest evidence of complex cells turned up in Australian shale deposits (Aug. 28: 141).
1999 CE Evidence indicated that homonids killed off large mammals at the end of the last ice age (SciNews: Dec. 4: 360).
1999 CE After years of construction, several new or rebuilt giant accelerators started operations that may lead to deeper understanding of matter and antimatter, the fundamental forces of nature, and the Big Bang (SciNews: May 29: 342; June 19: 399; Aug. 7: 95).
1999 CE A sensitive measurement showed that gravitational energy is accelerated by gravity, just like mass and other forms of energy, reconfirming Einstein's general theory of relativity (SciNews: Oct. 30: 277).
1999 CE Beagles received lab-grown bladders, the first engineered organs to successfully replace whole native organs (SciNews: Feb. 13: 101).
1999 CE Genetic engineering produced trees tailored to be made into paper or fuel (July 31: 70). Gene-altered plants synthesized commercial-grade plastic (SciNews: Oct. 16: 246).
U.S. accuses China of stealing nuclear secrets (March 5). (Info)
Libya hands over two suspects in 1988 Pan Am jet bombing (April 5). (Info)
Ehud Barak defeats Benjamin Netanyahu in Israeli prime minister election (May 17). (Info)
U.S. inspects suspected nuclear weapons site in North Korea, finds nothing (May 20–24). (Info)
Yeltsin replaces Prime Minister Stepashin with Vladimir Putin in fourth government shakeup in 17 months (Aug. 9). (Info)
Islamic militants declare independence for Dagestan and announce holy war against Russia (Aug. 10). (Info)
White supremacist opens fire at Jewish community center in LA, wounding five and killing one as he flees (Aug. 10). (Info)
More than 17,000 people die in 7.4 earthquake in Turkey (Aug. 17). (Info)
Attorney General Janet Reno reopens investigation of 1993 Waco, Tex., stand-off (Aug. 25). (Info)
Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and PLO leader Yasir Arafat announce peace accord (Sept. 4). (Info)
Russia sends ground troops to Chechnya as conflict with Islamic militants intensifies (Oct. 1). (Info)
World population reaches six billion milestone (Oct. 11). (Info)
Military coup led by Gen. Pervez Musharraf overthrows Pakistani government (Oct. 12). (Info)
Indonesia elects Muslim leader Abdurrahman Wahid president (Oct. 20). (Info)
Muslim terrorists hijack Indian Airlines jet with 189 on board (Dec. 24). (Info)
ACCELERATING Global Changes!
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